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Konferansa Drok 2001

Lkolnn li ser Ziman Kurd

Huseyin Kartal

  

Ji bo amadekariya lkolneke li ser ziman kurd[1] bi awayek bikaranna rzemateryalan, rewsh zde derfet nade ku mirov mijar bi trah pshksh bike.

Mna her lkoln, lhrbn pshxebat pwst in. Li ser ziman kurd gelek zde kar xebat hene l rz nebne. Rzeristeya kar xebat bi xwe j lkolneke zanist ye. Metodn risterziya xebatn beshan gelek cda ne, her beshxebat metd xwe j diafirne.

Di pirsa lkolnn ziman kurd de rzeristeyek berfireh mna lhrbneke nivsk neket dest me[2]. Lkolneke bi v away hebe j, ji aliy me peyda neb l bi baweriya me tune. Di v gotar de xebat berhem ten pir bi gelemper, b kurahiya shiroveyn naverok, bi awayek nv-kronolojk, yan nv-risterz tn ziman. Risterziyeke seranser berfireh ya berheman hem mijar hem j dem vediteqne, ji armanca gotar dr dixne, dikeve nav xebata lhrbna pirtkek.

Mijara niha xwe bi hin besh berheman ji hla herm, zarav devok bi snor dike. Yan lhrbneke qualtatv nne, quanttatv e, rzeristeyeke kurt e.

Ji ber crbecr gelekiya xebat berheman ev xebat ten killek e; bichk aloz e. Ne ten sal bi sal l dem bi dem, besh bi besh, li gor mijar nivskar j bi rz dibe.

1. Lkolnn drok (kurtedroka xebatn li ser ziman kurd)

Li gor ramana gotarvan yekemnivs li ser ziman Nbihar[3]a Ehmed Xan ye. Di v pirtka xwe ya ji aliy shekil bichk l manetij de, Xan ziman kurd ereb mna ferhengokeke xachepirs dihunne bi v away berhemeke frbna ziman diafirne.

Pisht Xan heta sedsala bstan tu berhem li ser ziman kurd ji aliy kurdan (li gor zanna min) nay hol. Dibistann ziman kurd di ser de jin, malbatn kurd in. Ziman ne bi lkolnn li ser ziman l bikaranna ziman ber psh dikeve. Helbestvaniya klask shevbrkn gundan, chrok metelokn d, bav, dapr bapran, stran kilamn dengbjan, dlann zemawend prozbahiya newrozan dihle ku ziman kurd heta roja me xurt zind bimne.

Lkolnn sedsaln 18 19 an piran ji aliy keshshn msyoner rwiyn Ewrop ve hatine afirandin. Mna her dnn din xiristiyan j dixwaze xwe berfireh bike bikeve nav civakn din li dinyay. Pisht tkchna xachsefern navndem, ber bi destpka ndema droka nivsk di dn xiristiyan de reform pk tn. Xiristiyan dawiya navndem dev ji xachseferan ber didin. Zana keshshn xwe dishnin rojhilata navn daku li ser geln wan hereman lkolnan bikin tbigihijin ew chi ne, chi dixwazin. Gelek rw kesn dewlemend ber bi rojhilat ve dichin li ser wan gelan agah kom dikin. Pisht v yek msyoner dest bi kar dikin; ev yek dibe sedem ku gelek lkoln li ser kurd Kurdistan j pk bn.

Gava keshsh ji bo msyoneriy tn Kurdistan dibnin ku li psh wan chand zimanek gelek xurt sharistaniyeke kr heye. Ev balkshiya gel kurd dihle ku hin ji wan di bin bandora chanda wan de bimnin li ser wan berheman bidin.

Yek ji wan her pshn Maurizio Garzon ye. Garzon keshshek tal ye 20 sal di nav kurdan de dij[4].Berhema xwe ya bi nav Gramer Ferhenga Ziman Kurd[5] amade dike di sala 1787 an de li bajar Romay dide chapkirin. Ev pirtk ji aliy rziman berhema her pshane ye li ser ziman kurd.

Bi chav roja me ev berhem gelek asan dixuy l ger mirov li gor dem binirxne rmeta w gelek zelal e. Pirtk ji du beshan pk t: Rziman ferhengok.

Pisht Garzoni kesn mna Emil Rdiger, A.F. Pott[6] lhrbnn xwendina ziman kurd chdikin. Xebatn li ser rziman bi gisht ziman li Almanya yekemcar ji aliy Ferdinand Justi[7] chbye.Pirtka w ya bi nav Rziman Kurd li Petersburg (1880) hatiye chapkirin.

Justi beriya berhema xwe alkariya Alexander Jaba (zanayek Polon ye) kirib ku ew Ferhenga Kurd-Frans[8] dsa li Petersburg (1879) dab chapkirin. Herchiqas Justi bi xwe Alman e l yek ji wan kesan e ku bingeha kurdolojiy li Rsyay ava dike, bi alkariya hin kesn din mna Albert Socin[9] ku nivseke xurt bi nav Ziman Kurdan di pirtka Eeugen Prym[10] de(1887) diweshne. Mirov dikare bibje ku ji aliy naverok berhema her xurt manetij ev nivsa Albert Socin e. Lkolnern pisht w gelek berjewend j wergirtine ji bo ziman Kurd j ev yek ji bo w dem bye dewlemendiyek.

Friedrich Carl Andreas[11] Houtoum-Schindel[12] du rojhilatnasn din yn Alman in ku ew j di w dem de li ser Kurd xebat kirine; li Nemsa j F. Mller[13] xebatn her pshane li ser ziman Kurd kiriye.

Li Rsyay rojhilatzann mna I.N.Berezine (1818-1896) li ser devokn kurd, P.I.Lerch (1827-1884) shiroveya tekstn kurd, A. Chodzka li ser flolojiya ziman kurd di sedsala 19 an de berhem dane[14].

Sedsala 18 li talya sedsala 19 j bi gelemper li Almanya, Nemsa, Rsya Skandnavya ji bo kurdoloj bash derbas dibe. Heta destpka sedsala bstan li welatn din xebat li ser ziman kurd tune. Ten msyonerek Amerk bi nav S.A.Rhea[15] li ser ziman kurd herma Hekar hin xebatan kir.

Mirov nivsa kin ya Sherefxan Bidls di sherefnamey de negire ber chav sedsal ji aliy lkolnern kurd li ser ziman b berhem derbas dibe.

Destpka sedsala 20 an destpka jnvedaneke lkolnan e li ser ziman kurd. Lkolnern kurd hn daneketine herma lkolnan. Bdeng heye. Ev bdeng heta xebata Celadet El Bedirxan bi awayek didome. Ber bi nv sedsala bstan dema berhem lkolnn klask ku ji her al ve tishtn gelemper diann ziman li ser beshan hr nedibn, derbas dibe, demeke qualitatv (krbn beshkirin) dest p dike. Ev krbna dabeshkirin destpk ji aliy lkolner zanayn kurd pk t. Em li v der ten chend navn psheng bi br bnin: Celadet Bedirxan, Tawfq Wahb, Eladn Sucad, Gw Mukriyan...

Beriya em derbas nv sedsal bibin, destpka sedsal hjay peyv ye; ji ber ku gelek berhem li ser ziman hene.

Kevneshopiya klask li Almanya, Rsya, Skandnavya didome. Xebat li hin welatn din yn mna Amerka Ingilistan j dest p dike, li wan welatan j hin berhem li ser ziman kurd derdichin.

Li Almanya Oskar Mann, rojhilatnasek berhemdar, bi chend salan li ran  lhrbn berhevkar dike. Di derbar gelek zarav devokn ran, kurd j bi zarav devokn xwe t de materyalan kom dike. Du pirtkn w xur li ser zarava kurdn mukr li Berlin (1906, 1909) derdikevin[16]. Pirtka w ya li ser zarava Zazak bi xebata shagirt w Karl Hadank[17] pisht mirina w (1932) t chapkirin.

Pirtka Hugo[18] Makas ku ew bi xwe ji Nemsa ye li Lenngrad (1926)derdikeve.

Kaj Barr[19] pirtka rojhilatzan Alman F.C. Andreas bi A. Christensen W. Hennig re (1939) chap dike.

Destpka sedsal  Rsya gelek tevlhev e. Pisht shoresha Oktober carek din r li ber xebatn kurdoloj di ser de j li ber ziman kurd vedibe. Gelek zana lkolnern mna I.A. Orbeli, I. Avaliani, I.A. Smirnova, R. L. Tsabolov, V. Miller, S.N. Sokolov, I. M. Oranski, L.A. Pireyko[20] li ser ziman kurd xebatn hja diafirnin.

Di v dem de li hin welatn din j xebat li ser ziman kurd derdikevin. Li Fransa P. Beider[21] Rziman Kurd (1926) diweshne. Pisht nv sedsal d xebata lkolnern mna Celadet Kamuran Bedirxan Tawfq Wahb li Ewropa j serdest e. Gelek lkolner di bin bandora wan de dimnin bi alkariya wan dest bi lkolnan dikin. Ji van hinek ev in: Roger Lescot, J. Blau li Fransa; C.J. Edmonds, D.N. Mackenzie li Ingilistan wd.

Li Ingilistan E.B. Soane, R.F. Jardine, C.J. Edmonds, D.N. Mackenzie, li Amerka L.O. Fossum, Ernest N. McCarus, Margaret Kahn berhemdarn psheng[22] in.

Pisht nv sedsala bstan gelek kesn n (hinek bi bandora kochberiya kurdan) bala xwe didin ser kurdan ziman kurd. Pisht ku berhemn zana lkolnern kurd[23] j dinasin ew j dest bi hin xebatn bingehn dikin. Hin ji wan xebat berhemn qualtatv didin[24]. Dema her n hem ji aliy kurdan hem j ji aliy biyaniyan bi xebatn naveroktij hn j psh ve diche.

Ziman kurd heri zde bi berhem lkolnern mezin mna Celadet Kamuran Bedirxan, Tawfq Wahb, Qanat Kurdo, Isaq Sukerman, Gw Mukriyan, Hejar, Muhamed Mukr, Muhamed Xal, A.Rahman Hec Maruf, Zera Usiv, Kerm Eyb, Cherkez Bakayev, Kemal Badilli, Maksm Xamo, Eladn Secad, Sadiq Bahadn[25], Cemal Nebez, M.E. Hewreman, Maruf Karadax, Mardx, Qadir Fettah Qaz, Sx Mahmd Kurdistan, M. E. Bozarslan, Musa Anter, Feq Hisn Sagnic, Hemd Ferec, Tahir Sadiq, Ezz Akrey, Reshd Kurd, Kurdistan Mukriyan wd. ji her alve gihishtiye lkolnan, bi psh ve ketiye gihishtiye rewshek ku ber bi kamilbn ve diche.

2. Lkolnern dema n

Ji aliy qualtatv xebatn her psh ji nv sedsala bstan schn ve ber bi psh chye. Di v dem de zde xebat li ser beshn ziman kurd pk hatine. Ne mna ber ten bi gelemper li ser ziman, rziman ferheng l li ser beshn ziman berhem hatine dayn. Zdey ji wan berheman li bashr Kurdistan ji aliy kurdn Sovyet hatine afirandin.

Di dema n de her diche xebatn ziman berfirehtir dibin perwerdeya ziman kurd[26] ber bi nifsheyn n pl dide. Ziman ne ten bi xebata yekekes l bi hin xebatn komik j pk t. Di v war de hin gav ber bi sazbn j tn xuyakirin. Di v yek de xebat hn di destpk de ye.

Lkolnn kolektv mna komcivnn nsttta Kurd ya Pars ku encam di rojnameya Kurmanc[27] de tn weshandin, konferansn ziman ku ji aliy nsttta Kurd li Berln tn lidarxistin encam di kovara Lkoln[28] de derdichin, raman daxwaza Akademiyeke Ziman Kurd[29] ku t guftigokirin dibe biryar pvejoya pshvechna xebatn akademk zdetir dikin.

Kurd ne ten bi zarav Kurmanc l bi xebat pratka zaravn din j bi psh dikeve[30]. Komika derdora kovara Vate[31] ji aliy Kirmanc di v war de yekemcar ber bi sazbn standartzebna zarav Kirmanc gavek girng e.

Gelek kovar hin rojnameyn[32] kurd pwst dtine ku c bidin xebatn li ser ziman.

Dema n dema gelek berhemn ziman kurd li ser ziman kurd ye. Ne ten pirtk l gelek kurtelkoln kurtelgern j di kovarn biyan[33] kurd de tn weshandin.

Lkoln lkolnern ziman kurd di dema n de li her aliy welat dervay welat belav bne. Ten chend navan ku mirov bne ziman: Zana Farqn, Malmsanij, Zerdesht Haco, Resho Zlan, Celadet Celker(Alfabe), Baran Rizgar, Alan Dilpak, Fergin Melik Aykoc, Selm Bichk, Ezz Cewo, Haydar Diljen, F.F. Omar, Amed Tgrs, Mahmud Lewend, D. zol, Tor, A. Bal, Beyhan Sahn, Uso B. Barnas, El Serwet, Petra Wurzel, Nesrn Aydin, Jr Rexnegr, Burhan Dinler, Nesrn Fexr, I. Nasso, Michael Chyet, Samek Reza Dro, Salah Azz, Amr Hesenpr, Mistefa Reshd, Michiel Leezenberg, Mirella Galletti, Y. Zaharn wd. Hin ji wan li ser perwerde hin j li ser ziman dixebitin l girdana perwerde bi ziman heye, div navn wan kesan j bn ziman.

Gelek navn din yn n li bashr rojhilat hene. Li bashr sazbn li psh e ji ber ku zanngeh[34] hene. Zanngeh r didin pir kesan ku tzn xwe yn zanist li ser ziman binivsnin, ev yek j rewsha ziman bi psh dixne.

3. Medya n, Internet wd.

Dema n pisht saln 1990 shn ve kurd li her der ber bi sazbn gav davjin. Di nav sazbn de ciy her girng zanngeh, Televzyon[35], nsttt dibistann perwerdeya ziman kurd digirin.

Li bashr Kurdistan s zanngeh hene: Zanngeha Hewlr, Zanngeha Duhok, Zanngeha Silman. Di van zanngehan de beshn ziman kurd hene. Di wan beshan de bi her away lkolnn zanist li ser ziman chdibin. nstttn Kurd li cem xebatn xwe yn din li ser ziman gelek radiwestin. nsttta Kurd ya Stenbol ferhengeke berfireh bi Tirk-Kurd[36] weshandiye. Kurd-Tirk j, ji bo weshan amade dikin. nsttta Kurd ya Pars pisht kovara Hv[37] komika ziman chkir Kurmanc[38] diweshne. Li ba pirtkn Bedirxan gelek pirtkn din j diweshne. Insttta Kurd li Berlin ne ten kovara Lkoln, herwisa chend pirtkan[39] li ser ziman kurd j weshandiye.

Di medya n de kurd gelek chalak in, mnak; gelek malpern[40] agahdar di nternet de li ser ziman j vekirine. Malpern ziman di nav xwe de ber bi kar akademk[41] perwerde[42] ji hev vediqetin. Chend malper bi taybet li ser ziman hene ku gelek materyalan pshksh dikin. Wek din gelek malpern chand kesan hene ku nivsn li ser ziman kurd j diberiqnin...

4. Encam

Nivskarek dibje ziman ne berhemek e, ziman chalakiyek e[43], rast e; ziman ne nav chalakiya civak de be nikare ji jarbn tkchn bifilite. Giringiya her bingehn ji bo pshvebirina ziman kurd, bikaranna w bi xwe ye. Li ba kar xebatn lkolnane yn zanist pwst biakranna ziman di her qad besha civak kesane de heye.

Li gor ewqas pshvechn berheman j, ziman ten bi lkoln karn zanist di nav civak de belav nabe bingeh nagire. Ji berfirehbn bingehkirina ziman dibistan, zanngeh tgshtina gisht pwst e. Hn gelek berhemn kurd bi zimann biyan ne, bi taybet tirk.

Rewsha pshvechna ziman bi bikaranna ziman ve gelek nzk girdaye. Ziman b civakek aktv, b peyvdar, nvskar, xwendevan guhdarn chalak ne tisht e. Gelek ziman di dema xwe de xurt bi nirx ro bne drok[44], ji ber ku b civak peyvdaran mane.

Li gor ku kurd li bakr[45] bi carek ve bi xwe hesiyan dest bi xebata ziman kirin j, xetereya her mezin li ser ziman kurd li Tirkiy ye. Tirkiye[46] dixwaze kurd b ziman bihle pash maf ziman bide wan l li dij v yek derketin j bi projejn dreroj xebatn kr dibe.

Chavkan 

-          Bedir Khan, Emir Djeladet und Lescot, Roger, Kurdische Grammatik/Kurmanc-Dialekt, Bonn, 1986

-          Bedirxan, Kamuran Ali, Rzimana Ziman Kurd, Paris, 1971

-          Bedirxan, K.-Şivan, S., Zman Kurd / Krt Dili, Istanbul

-          Edmonds, C.J., Suggestions for the use of Latin character for  the Writing of Kurdish", JRAS, Jan., 1931

-          Fuad, Kemal, Kurdische Handschriften, Wiesbaden, 1970

-          Hajo, Zaradachet, Indo-Iranische Sprachstudien, Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors der Philosophie dem Fachbereich Germanistik der FU Berlin, Berlin, 1982

-          Hassanpour, Amir, Nationalism and language (1918-1985), San Fransisco, 1992

-          Hejar, (Ebdul-Rehman Serefkend) Farhang-e Kordi Farsi, Hanbana'borina, Tehran, 1991

-          Jalil, Ordixane & jalil, Jalile, Zargotina Kurda I, II Nauka press, Moskow, 1978

-          Kren, Karin, Kurdologie, Kurdistan und Kurden in der deutschsprachigen Literatur, Kommentierte Bibliographie, Mnster 2000

-          Kurd, Reshd, Rzimana Ziman Kurmanc, Beyrut-1956, Norsborg-1990

-          Kurdo, Qanat, Ziman Kurd/Rzıman, Frankfurt/m 1981 (ber: Kurdoev, Kanat Kalashevich, Grammatika kurdskogo jazyka (kurmandzhi): fonetika, mrfologija Moskcow, 1957

-          Kurdo, Qanat, Gramera Zman Kurdi / kurmanci - sorani, Stockholm 1990 (ber: K. Kanat, Grammatika kurdskogo iazyka na materiale dialektov kurmandzhi i sorani Moskva, 1978)

-          MacKenzie, D. N., Kurdish Dialect Studies, I-II, London, 1961-1962

-          Matras, Yaron, Probleme der Sprachstandartisierung, Am Beispiel der Orthographie des Kurdischen, MA, Hamburg, 1989

-          Matras, Yaron, Ergativity in Kurmanji (Kurdish) Orientalita Suecana XLI-XLII (1992-1993)

-          Nebez, Cemal, Ziman Yekgirty Kurd, Amberg, 1976

-          Rohat, Krdoloji Biliminin 200 Yιllιk Gemişi (1787-1987), Kln, 1987

-          Socin, Albert, Die Sprache der Kurden, in: Grundri d. iran. Phil., Strassburg, 1895-1901

-           

-          (Lgern di Kovan kurd  malpern internet gelek zde alkariya v nivs kirine ku yek bi yek anna wan  ziman li v der pwst nay dtin)


[1] Li ser hem besh zaraveyn ziman kurd lhrbn, di nav charchoveya gotarek de ne mumkun e. Li v der pirsgirk ten bi kurtah t ziman.

[2] Cemal Nebez li ser droka kurdnas li Almanya lkolnek weshandiye l ev ne risterzek e gelemper li ser ziman e, b. Cemal Nebez Kurte Mjyek Kurdnas le Elmaniya de, Govar Kor Zanyar Kurd, cild 1,  besh2, Bexda 1974.

[3] Ehmed Xan, Nbar, Stockholm 1986 (orjnala Xan Nbihar e)

[4] 1762 yιlιnda, bugnk Musul kentinde dinsel alιşmalara başlιyan Garzoni, daha sonra Amediye iline gitmiş, yaklaşιk olarak yirmi yιl yaşamιnι burada Krtler arasιnda geirmiştir. 1764-1770 yιllarι arasιnda bu eserini hazιrlayan Garzoni, daha sonra onu ilk kez 1787 yιlιnda Romada yayιnlιyor. Amediye yresi Krtesini bu eserinde ele alan Garzoninin 288 sayfalιk alιşmasι, iki blmden oluşmuştur: Dilbilgisi ve 220 sayfayι kapsayan İtalyanca-Krte Szlk. Bu szlkte yaklaşιk olarak 4600 szck yer aldι. Krt Dili Grameri ve Szlğ adlι Garzoninin bu alιşmasιnιn ikinci baskιsι 1826 yιlιnda yapιlmιştιr.(Rohat, Krdoloji Biliminin 200 Yιllιk Gemişi (1787-1987), Kln 1987).

[5] Dal P. Maurizio Garzoni, Grammatica e vocabolario della lingua Kurda, Roma MDCCLXXXVII.

[6] Emil Rdiger, A.F.Pott, Kurdische Studien, kovara ZDMG cild III r. 1-63 1840, cild IV r.1-42, 259-280 1842, cild V r. 57-83 1844, cild VII r.91-167 1850.

[7] Ferdinand Justi, Kurdische Grammatik, (256 r.) (Comission der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaft) Petersburg 1880 / Kurdische Spiranten, (29 r.) Marburg 1873.

[8] Alexander Jaba-F. Justi, Dictionnaire Kurde-Franais, Petersburg 1879.

[9] Albert Socin, Die Sprache der Kurden, in Grundriss der iranischen Philologie I,2 r.249-286, Straburg 1898-1901.

[10] Heinrich Eugen Prym (Hrsg.) Grundriss der iranischen Philologie 1895-1901 (bi A. Socin re: Kurdische Sammlungen: Erzhlungen und Lieder in den Dialekten des Tur Abidin und von Bohtan; gesammelt und bersetzt von H.E. Prym und Albert Socin, I-350 r., 1887, II-284 r. 1890, St. Ptersburg.

[11] F.C. Andreas xebata xwe nebiriye daw, xebata w pash ji aliy Kaj Barr hatiye weshandin.

[12] Albert Houtoum-Schindler, Beitrge zum kurdischen Wortschatz, ZDMG (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft, Leipzig) cild 38 r.43-116 1884, Weitere Beitrge zum kurdischen Wortschatz, cild 42 r.73-79 1888.

[13] Friedrich Mller, Beitrge belegen zur Kenntnis der neupersischen Sprache: Teil II Kurmng-Dialekt der Kurdensprache, (46-r.450-480) Wien 1864, Teil III Zaza-Dialekt der Kurdensprache, (48-r.227-245) Wien 1865 (Akademie der Wissenschaft-Wien).

[14] E. Berezine, Recherches sur les dialectes persans, Casan 1853 / П.Лерх, Исследовние об ирансиx курдах и их лредках северных халдеях, СПБ, 1856, 1857, 1858 / A. Chodzko, Etudes philologiques de la languue kurde (dialecte Suleimanie), Journal Asiatique, Paris 1857.

[15] S.A.Rhea, Brief grammar a vocabulary of the kurdish language of the Hakari district JAOS 1, 1872.

[16] Oskar Mann, Die Mundart der Mukri-Kurden, Teil 1, Grammatische Skizze, Texte in phonetischer und persischer Umschrift, Berlin 1906; Teil 2: Deutsche bersetzung der Texte mit einer Einleitung ber Inhalt und Form der ostkurdischen Volksepik, Berlin 1909.

[17] Karl Hadank, Mundarten der Zaza, hauptschlich aus Siwerek und Kor, Berlin 1932.

[18] Hugo Makas, Kurdische Texte im Kurmanji Dialecte aus der Gegend von Mrdn, St. Petersburg 1897 / 1924.

[19] Kaj Barr, Aufzeichnungen ber die kurdischen Dialekte Grs, Senna, Kirmnshah, Korn nd Kln-Abd aus dem Nachlass von Andreas, Berlin, 1939

[20] Ji bo van xebatan binre: Rohat, plj. r. 105-149.

[21] Pierre Beider, Grammaire Kurde, Paris 1926.

[22] Di dema n de li herder lkolner berhemdar derketine. Hinek ji wan li ser zarav Kirmanc dixebitin: mna Terry Lynn Todd li Amerka Paul Luig li Almanya wd.

[23] Destpka xebata dema n bi xebatkar lkolnern mna Kamuran Bedirxan, Cemal Nebez, Kemal Fuad bi bandora kesn mna I.S. Wanl, N. Zaza Hemresh Resho jn dide.Ji nav wan K. Bedirxan Cemal Nebez ji aliy ziman kesn gelek berhemdar in.

[24] Yaron Matras yek ji wan e ku li ser ziman kurd xebatn qualtatv kiriye. Magstera xwe li ser standertzekirina rastnivsa kurd nivsandiye (b. Yaron Matras, Probleme der Sprachstandartisierung, Am Beispiel der Orthographie des Kurdischen, Hamburg 1989 / Y. Matras, Ergativity in Kurmanji (Kurdisch), Notes on ist Use and Distribution, Hamburg 1990).

[25] Mirov carna navn gelek mezin j, ji br dike; spas ji Serfiraz Neqshbend re ku v nav giranbiha an bra min.

[26] Perwerdeya ziman kurd piran li hin welatn Ewropa Skandnavya t dayn. Swd di nav hem welatan de y her psheng bingehn e.

[27] Rojnameya Kurmanc ji aliy komika nsttta Kurd ya Pars t weshandin. Her chend demek dicivin li ser tgnn hin beshn ziman, drok, civak chand lhr dibin encam j pshksh br raya gisht dikin. Ji ber teng kmbelavbn nexebata bi hem saziyn din di v beh de encam mna biryar pratk di nav civaka kurd de nakeve jiyan.

[28] Lkoln li ser civaka Kurdistan kovara nsttta Kurd ji bo Lkoln Zanist e. Dem bi dem derdikeve pirziman ye. Gotarn lkoln zanist li ser civaka kurd b werger bi zimann orjnal diweshne.

[29] Ramana avasaziya Akademiya Kurd destpk bi form akademiyeke sereke ji bo saziyn zanist ji aliy birz I.S. Wanl hatib pshniyazkirin. Ev yek neket jiyan. Ramana Akademiya Ziman Kurd ji aliy birz Abdullah calan ji bo sazbn peshvechna ziman kurd hatib pshniyazkirin.

[30] Li welatn ku kursn Kurmanc hene pircaran yn Kirmanc(Dimil) Soran j tn dayn.

[31] Kovara Vate heta niha ji 20 hejmar zdetir weshan kiriye komika w derdixe saziyek bi nav nsttya Ziwan Kultura Kirmanc  ............ li Berlin ava kiriye.

[32] B. Berxwedan, zgr Politika wd. (Ew bi ziman tirk derdikevin l c didin kurd j. Berxwedan d dernache l . Politika kovarek bi nav Hwa xur bi kurd derdixne).

[33] C. Schrder, J. Meyer-Ingwersen, Y. Matras, Geoffrey Haig, Paul Luig, Alessandro Coletti(roh.32) gelekn din...

[34] Zanngeh ji aliy ve ji bo sazbna xebatn zanist pwst in.

[35] MED-TV di sala 1995 an de dest bi weshan kir; ev yek ji aliy gelek kurdan mna shoresheke n hat pshwazkirin. Di demek de ku dijminn kurd nedihishtin kurd ji aliy chand ziman bihn bigirin weshana televzyona zatelt di girngiya shoreshek de b nirxandin ne zde ye. Ev yek qedexe astengiyn dijmin li ser ziman chanda kurd vala derxistin, ji ber ku ji her aliy Kurdistan gelek welatn chan dihat temashekirin. Pash li bashr j du televzyon dest bi weshn kirin.

[36] Zana Farqn, Byk Trke Krte Szlk / Ferhenga Mezin a Tirk-Kurd, İstanbul 2000.

[37] Hv (Kovara andya Gisht) ji sala 1983 heta 1990 heft hejmar derketiye. Di wan deman de kovareke din j bi nav Studia Kurdica bi chend zimanan derket.

[38] Kurmanc heta niha gelek derketiye xwe li ser tgnan kr kiriye.

[39] Binre: Ali Sarwat, Themen aus der kurdischen Wortbildung, Berlin 1997 / Selm Bik, Rziman Kurd, Berlin 1997 / Ilhan Kιzιlhan, Kurdisch Einfach Lernen, Hnbna Ziman Kurd, Berlin 1998 / F.M. Ayko, Kurdzan-Rberna Zaravn Kurd, Berlin 1996).

[40] Gelek malper hene agahdariyn gelemper didin: amude, nefel,  akin, yektaweb, rpeln kesan wd.

[41] mnak: KAN-Kurdish Academic Work, Kurd-Lal wd.

[42] mnak: dilpak, diljen, wd.

[43] Dilaar, A., Dil ve Gerek, Dil Yazιlarι I, r.9, Ankara, 1988

[44] Mnak Latn, Avesta ku kurd pir li ser dipeyivin j hez dikin. Li ser ziman Asr/Keldan gelek lkolnn berfireh hene l mixabin ji aliy civak xwedlderketin gelek km e peyvdar hindik in.

[45] Girngiya pshniyaza birz calan vekirina Okuma Odalarι (odeyn xwendin yan dibistan) bi baweriya min di pratka kurdn bakr de hn j zelal nehatiye famkirin.

[46] Li gor hin kesn serldana Amed kirine ten li Amed bi dehan TV Radyoyn herm weshan bi ziman Tirk dikin. Li Amed beriya salan kesek newrib bi tirk bipeyive, M. Uzun digot resh gelek xirab e, xortn temen wan bin bst de d kurd napeyivin. Dewleta Tirk beriya demek aksiyona diyarkirina TV ji bo bajarn mna Hekar kirib. Ev gish didin xuyakirin ku dagirker di guhertina metodn xwe yn asmlasyon ne ewchend pash ve mane.

 

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